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Before his execution he made three requests. [11] On March 13, King was surrounded by elements of the Mexican army and sent out a plea for help to Fannin, who sent Lieutenant-Colonel William Ward and the Georgia Battalion to reinforce him. King's company, the others "one by one" (see REFUGIO, BATTLE OF). On March 22 William Ward, who with Amon B. The Texans lost. When the Mexican and Texan commissioners seeking surrender terms failed to agree, Urrea shortened the conference by dealing directly with Fannin and proposing written terms, under which the Texans should give up their arms and become prisoners of war "at the disposal of the Supreme Mexican Government." [15] After several hours of fighting, the Mexicans had suffered an estimated 200 casualties and the Texians nine killed and about sixty wounded. TITH: The Goliad Massacre. No thank you, I am not interested in joining. The first paragraph states "The massacre was reluctantly carried out by General Jose de Urrea". Thirty-three Americans were captured in the course of the fighting at Nuestra Señora del Refugio Mission, half of them with Capt. John J. Linn, Reminiscences of Fifty Years in Texas (New York: Sadlier, 1883; 2d ed., Austin: Steck, 1935; rpt., Austin: State House, 1986). The Goliad Campaign was the 1836 Mexican offensive to retake the Texas Gulf Coast during the Texas Revolution. [9] On February 26, 1836, he attempted to march to San Antonio but turned back at the San Antonio River because of the inability to travel with the artillery and arms. Font size: Ward and the Georgia Battalion attempted to escape to Victoria, where they expected to link up with the balance of Fannin's command. The resolution thus gave the Mexican Army permission to take no prisoners in the war against the Texians. La Bahía lay halfway between the only other large garrison of Mexican soldiers and the then-important Texas port of Copano. Urrea satisfied his conscience by shooting King and fourteen of his men, while "setting at liberty all who were colonists or Mexicans. They were marched back to Goliad to face the same fate as the rest of Fannin's command.[11]. His personal possessions were taken by Mexican soldiers, he was shot in the face, and Fannin's body was burned along with the many other Texians who died that day.[19]. William Kennedy, Texas: The Rise, Progress, and Prospects of the Republic of Texas (London: Hastings, 1841; rpt., Fort Worth: Molyneaux Craftsmen, 1925). The troops sang "Home Sweet Home" on the night of March 26. Santa Anna's main army took no prisoners; execution of the murderous decree of December 30, 1835, fell to Gen. José de Urrea, commander of Santa Anna's right wing. At Refugio on March 15, 1836, Urrea was again confronted with the duty of complying with the fatal decree of December 30. Meantime, on March 23, evidently doubting Urrea's willingness to serve as executioner, Santa Anna sent a direct order to the "Officer Commanding the Post of Goliad" to execute the prisoners in his hands. The Texians were marched back to Goliad and held as prisoners at Fort Defiance,[17] each believing that they were going to be set free in a matter of weeks. The blood of my lieutenant was on my clothes, and around me lay my friends convulsed in their last agony. Like Johnson’s force, both of these groups were eventually killed or captured by the Mexicans. Amon B. Clarence R. Wharton, Remember Goliad (Houston: McCurdy-Young, 1931). The Massacre. Q. [11] The wounded and dying were then clubbed and stabbed. The Handbook of Texas is free-to-use thanks to the support of readers like you. Two physicians, Joseph H. Barnard and John Shackelford, were taken to San Antonio to treat Mexican wounded from the battle of the Alamo; they later escaped. The bullets whistled round me as I swam slowly and wearily to the other side, but none wounded me. Fannin sent Captain Amon B. He sent couriers to Ward, but most of them were intercepted by Urrea's cavalry. The Goliad Massacre: On March 27, 1836, over three hundred rebellious Texan prisoners, most of them captured a few days before while battling the Mexican army, were executed by Mexican forces. There's some spooky history here in Texas. Mexican troops under the command of General José de Urrea defeated rebellious immigrants to the Mexican province of Texas, known as Texians, in a series of clashes in February and March. They were overtaken shortly and surrendered for lack of munitions. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. James Fannin commanded troops stationed at Fort Defiance in Goliad. Fannin ordered the bulk of his army to retreat from Goliad on March 19, in the hopes of joining the forces of General Sam Houston. However, he had sent most of his carts and horses with Ward to Refugio and had no cavalry. Once the columns reached their selected location, the Mexican soldados formed into two ranks on one side of the captives. [11] The Texians were less than one mile (1.6 km) from the safety of the tree line of Coleto Creek. The Mexican soldiers who stood at about three paces from us, leveled their muskets at our breasts. Burr H. Duval's company, was marched toward the upper ford of the San Antonio River on the Bexar road. After wandering on the coastal prairie for several days, the Georgia Battalion reached Victoria, only to find it in the possession of the Mexican army. On March 14, Ward defended his position at the Refugio Mission, while King's men fought from a stand of trees. Not until the morning of March 19 did Fannin finally begin his retreat from Goliad. thesis, University of Houston, 1941). On March 26, 1836, 19:00, Portilla received orders from Santa Anna in triplicate to execute the prisoners. Balderas, Capt. Mexican troops under the command of General José de Urrea defeated rebellious immigrants to the Mexican province of Texas, known as Texians, in a series of clashes in February and March. Several days later, informants revealed Grant's location, and on the morning of March 2, 150 Mexican troops ambushed Grant's men at the Battle of Agua Dulce. After the executions the bodies were burned, the remains left exposed to weather, vultures, and coyotes, until June 3, 1836, when Gen. Thomas J. Rusk, who had established his headquarters at Victoria after San Jacinto and was passing through Goliad in pursuit of Gen. Vicente Filisola's retreating army, gathered the remains and buried them with military honors. All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. In some accounts of the Goliad Massacre, a Mexican woman, Francisca (Francita, Panchita or Pancheta) Alavez, sometimes referred to by other names (Alvarez or Alavesco), rescued about 20 Texian soldiers and became known as "The Angel of Goliad. Joseph E. Field, Three Years in Texas (Greenfield and Boston, Massachusetts, 1836; rpt., Austin: Steck, 1935). A Goliad Massacre By Henry Le The massacre had a campaign called the Goliad Campaign of 1836.It was an effort for the Texans to survive an attack from the Mexicans. Twenty-eight Texians managed to escape by feigning death and other means. Had Fannin's and Miller's men been dumped on the wharves at New Orleans penniless, homesick, humiliated, and distressed, and each with his separate tale of Texas mismanagement and incompetence, Texas prestige in the United States would most likely have fallen, along with sources of help. For Biographies, Search Handbook of … He asked for his personal possessions to be sent to his family, to be shot in his heart and not his face, and that he be given a Christian burial. He linked up with several more units of Mexican infantry, bringing the total number of Mexican troops in the area to 1,500. When Fannin and his troops arrived at Golaid, they were forced to line up. That afternoon, Urrea's cavalry encircled the Texians. The Goliad Campaign was the 1836 Mexican offensive to retake the Texas Gulf Coast during the Texas Revolution. Charles Adams Gulick, Jr., Harriet Smither, et al., eds., The Papers of Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar (6 vols., Austin: Texas State Library, 1920–27; rpt., Austin: Pemberton Press, 1968). In Goliad, Colonel James Fannin commanded the Texan force of nearly 500 trained soldiers and militia. We created this eBook for you, and it was made possible through the contributions of our members and supporters. [22], Fannin's retreat and the Battle of Coleto, Harbert Davenport and Craig H. Roell, "GOLIAD CAMPAIGN OF 1836," Handbook of Texas Online, Craig H. Roell, "REFUGIO, BATTLE OF," Handbook of Texas Online, Francisca (Francita, Panchita or Pancheta) Alavez, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Goliad_Campaign&oldid=993300926, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 22:21. at the decisive Battle of San Jacinto. Some of the survivors attended the ceremony. The Goliad Massacre, the tragic termination of the Goliad Campaign of 1836, is of all the episodes of the Texas Revolution the most infamous. The third group, on the San Patricio road, was farther from cover; only four men from it are known to have escaped. Davenport presented the address, which was published as "The Men of Goliad" in the Southwestern Historical Quarterly (1939). Urrea, in compliance with his promise, wrote to Santa Anna from Guadalupe Victoria, informing him that Fannin and his men were prisoners of war "at the disposal of the Supreme Mexican Government" and recommending clemency; but he reported nothing in his letter of the terms that Fannin and his men had drafted for their surrender. On March 12, they encountered a group of Texian soldiers, under the command of William Ward at Refugio. The events at Goliad occurred at roughly the same time as the Battle of the Alamo. The tragedy that was Goliad had its roots in the Tampico Expedition of November 15, 1835, when General Jose Antonio Mexia attacked Tampico, Mexico, with three companies of troops who enlisted for service at New Orleans.The attack was unsuccessful, and most of … A man-by-man study of Fannin's command indicates that 342 were executed at Goliad on March 27. The next morning, seeing Urrea receive one hundred more men and three more artillery pieces, Fannin agreed to surrender. Carolino Huerta of the Tres Villas battalion. Join me as we look at one of the turning points of the Texas Revolution. The Texans were imprisoned by the Mexicans at Goliad and subsequently murdered by order of Antonio López de Santa Anna on March 27, 1836. Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. In September, Texians began … "[20] Other people known to have rescued some prisoners were: Juan Holzinger (saved two German Texians captured among Capt. Portilla suffered an unquiet night weighing these conflicting orders, but he concluded that he was bound to obey Santa Anna's order and directed that the prisoners be shot at dawn. / La Bahia-Goliad Photo Album. Kathryn Stoner O'Connor, The Presidio La Bahía del Espíritu Santo de Zúñiga, 1721 to 1846 (Austin: Von Boeckmann-Jones, 1966). Ruby C. Smith, "James W. Fannin, Jr., in the Texas Revolution," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 23 (October 1919, January, April 1920). In the early-morning hours of October 9, 1835, Texas settlers attacked the Mexican Army soldiers garrisoned at Presidio La Bahía, a fort near the Mexican Texas settlement of Goliad. He also had a similar order sent directly to the "Officer Commanding the Post of Goliad". Harbert Davenport and Craig H. Roell, Dudley Goodall Wooten, ed., A Comprehensive History of Texas (2 vols., Dallas: Scarff, 1898; rpt., Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1986). At a prearranged moment, or upon a given signal, the guards fired upon the prisoners at a range too close to miss. Only twenty-eight escaped the firing squads, and twenty more were spared as physicians, orderlies, interpreters, or mechanics largely because of the entreaties of a "high bred beauty" whom the Texans called the "Angel of Goliad" (see ALAVEZ, FRANCITA), and the brave and kindly intervention of Col. Francisco Garay. The common grave remained unmarked until about 1858, when a Goliad merchant, George von Dohlen, placed a pile of rocks on what was believed to be the site. On this day in 1836, the Goliad Massacre takes place. Although this was really an attempt by Urrea to commandeer the ship, the vessel had already departed. Urrea marched the Texians back to Fort Defiance, where they were held under guard. He described the slaughter: "Kneel down!" 30 seconds . In October, the Texians took up arms in what became known as the Texas Revolution. The Napoleon of the West was no longer seen as a brilliant military strategist but a cruel despot. Though not as salient as the battle of the Alamo, the massacre immeasurably garnered support for the cause against Mexico both within Texas and in the United States, thus contributing greatly to the Texan victory at the battle of San Jacinto and sustaining the independence of the Republic of Texas. General Urrea negotiated surrender "at the disposal of the Supreme Mexican Government", falsely stating that no prisoner taken on those terms had lost his life. A by Charlotte Churchill, With Milam and Fannin, Austin: Pemberton Press, 1968). [4] By the end of the year, all Mexican troops had been expelled from Texas.[5]. Believing that he had found an effective deterrent to expected American help for Texas, Santa Anna sought and obtained from the Mexican Congress the decree of December 30, 1835, which directed that all foreigners taken in arms against the government should be treated as pirates and shot. Henry Stuart Foote, Texas and the Texans (2 vols., Philadelphia: Cowperthwait, 1841; rpt., Austin: Steck, 1935). Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. Fannin's Fight & The Massacre at La Bahia (Goliad) The Men of Goliad by Unit and Fate. In April 1885 a memorial was finally erected, in the city of Goliad rather than on the site, by the Fannin Monument Association, formed by William L. Hunter, a massacre survivor. Forever etched in stone as the Goliad Massacre, 350 men lost their lives in cold blood — blood which would forever stain the hands of the man who ordered it, Santa Anna. They may have been added to the prisoners at Goliad and killed with Fannin on March 27. The Mexican army then turned northward, headed towards Goliad. reset. At sunrise on Palm Sunday, March 27, 1836, the unwounded Texans were formed into three groups under heavy guard commanded by Capt. When the Mexican general reported to Santa Anna that he was holding the San Patricio prisoners, Santa Anna ordered Urrea to comply with the decree of December 30. Twenty-eight of them were tried as pirates, convicted, and, on December 14, 1835, shot (see TAMPICO EXPEDITION). Captain King and all but one man were executed in short order. Still, Fannin became cheerful and reported to his men that the Mexicans were making arrangements for their departure. King on a mission to Refugio on March 11, to remove several noncombatant families out of the path of Urrea's army. Fannin's men possessed, besides their rifles, 500 spare muskets and nine brass cannons and, if told that it would mean death to surrender, could sell their lives at fearful cost and might cut their way through Urrea's lines. The Battle of Goliad was the second skirmish of the Texas Revolution. Translation by Carlos Casteñeda of the Centralista copy of the surrender document in the Archives of the War Department in Mexico City discovered by Dr. E. C. Barker. On March 18, Urrea's advance scouts were viewing Goliad. and "Remember Goliad!" In eight days, home and liberty!". Victoria Advocate, January 3, 1932, 88th Anniversary Number, September 28, 1934. Hobart Huson (Refugio?, Texas, 1949). 0% Complete. Though some managed to escape en route, most remained there until the Mexican government later released them. Whilst these horrible scenes were occurring on the prairies, Col. Fannin and his wounded companions were shot and bayoneted at Goliad, only Dr. Shackleford and a few hospital aids having their lives spared, in order that they might attend the wounded Mexicans. On this day in 1836, which happened to be Palm Sunday, at least 342 Texians were executed by firing squad at Goliad (More Texians were killed at Goliad than the Alamo). The wounded Texans, about fifty (some estimates are much higher) including doctors and orderlies, Colonel Fannin among them, were returned to Goliad over the next two days. San Antonio de Bexar. Even then we could hardly believe that they meant to shoot us, for if we had we should assuredly have rushed forward in our desperation, and weaponless though we were, some of our murderers would have met their death at our hands. The battle at Goliad was terrible. [16] Fannin was unaware General Santa Anna had decreed execution for all rebels. It is part of the Victoria, Texas, Metropolitan Statistical Area. As he prepared to subdue the Texas colonists Santa Anna was chiefly concerned with the help they expected from the United States. Texan sources specify the number of prisoners as 407, exclusive of Miller's men. He said the Texan prisoners and American volunteers numbered about 400, while the Mexican captors totaled 700, in addition to cavalry and smaller groups of Mexican soldiers he saw gathered on the prairie. Fighting was halted that day at dark. The Goliad Massacre took place on March 27, 1836, during the Texas Revolution. The Texans thought they would likely be set free in a few weeks. Nearly all were killed at the first fire. Hobart Huson, El Copano: Ancient Port of Bexar and La Bahia (Refugio, Texas: Refugio Timely Remarks, 1935). But when he wrote this seemingly humane order, Urrea well knew that Portilla would not be able to comply with it, for on March 25, after receiving Santa Anna's letter, Urrea had ordered reinforcements that would have resulted in too large a diminution of the garrison for the prisoners to be employed on public works. Goliad Massacre Video Details 360-degree video filmed within and around the Presidio La Bahía and Fannin Battleground State Historic Site is intended to help viewers gain a deeper understanding of the tragic story that played an important role in the 1836 march toward Texas independence. The gist of these was that Fannin and his men, including his officers and the wounded, should be treated as prisoners of war according to the usages of civilized nations and, as soon as possible, paroled and returned to the United States. “Goliad Massacre,” In 1930 some Goliad Boy Scouts found charred bone fragments that had been unearthed over the years by animals, and an excursion to the site by Goliad residents on New Year's Day, 1932, succeeded in attracting an investigation of the site by University of Texas anthropologist J. E. Pearce. Which military leader was so indecisive about whether or not he should go to help defend the Alamo that he and his men ended up getting caught by the Mexican army and had to surrender at Coleto Creek? Colonists in Texas, primarily immigrants from the United States, revolted in October 1835 and by the end of the year had expelled all Mexican troops from their province. This is a Strange Book Not strange because of what's in it, but strange because it didn't exist until the second decade of the twenty-first century. The largest group, including what remained of Ward's Georgia Battalion and Capt. Urrea … He assured Fannin that there was no known instance where a prisoner of war who had trusted to the clemency of the Mexican government had lost his life, that he would recommend to General Santa Anna acceptance of the terms proposed by Fannin's men, and that he was confident of obtaining Santa Anna's approval within a period of eight days. Fannin, because he was wounded, was shot separately at the mission on the same day. A Many of those who eventually escaped were first recaptured and later managed a second escape. To provide assistance, James W. Fannin, commander of forces at Goliad, sent two relief forces. March 27. Most of you have heard “Remember the Alamo!” Did you know that “Remember Goliad!” was another battle cry used by Texans? The darkest day in Texas history, the Goliad Massacre, took place at Presidio La Bahia on March 27, 1836 — Palm Sunday. However, in the massacre section it states "Santa Anna responded to this entreaty by repeatedly ordering Urrea to comply with the law and execute the prisoners. Previous Topic. Jakie L. Pruett and Everett B. Cole, Goliad Massacre: A Tragedy of the Texas Revolution (Austin: Eakin Press, 1985). Urrea detained about twenty of Ward's men to build boats at Guadalupe Victoria, and Señora Alavez intervened with her husband, Col. Telesforo Alavez, whom Urrea left in charge of this village, to spare their lives as well; they afterward escaped. Under President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government began to shift away from a federalist model to a more centralized government. You would think such a … Yes, I would like to begin receiving history-rich content, news, and updates from TSHA. Until this episode Santa Anna's reputation had been that of a cunning and crafty man, rather than a cruel one. Main article: Goliad massacre The Mexicans took the Texans back to Goliad, where they were held as prisoners at Fort Defiance. From two groups shot on the river roads, those not instantly killed fled to the woods along the stream, and twenty-four managed to escape. In 1936, in celebration of the Texas Centennial, money was appropriated to build a massive pink granite monument, dedicated on June 4, 1938. This order was received on March 26 by Col. José Nicolás de la Portilla, whom Urrea had left at Goliad. Hobart Huson, Refugio: A Comprehensive History of Refugio County from Aboriginal Times to 1953 (2 vols., Woodsboro, Texas: Rooke Foundation, 1953, 1955). The two sides clashed and fought until dark with Urrea's soldiers suffering heavy casualties,[12] when Colonel Ward received word from Fannin to rendezvous at Victoria. [14] Fannin met to discuss terms with Colonel Juan José Holzinger ("Holsinger"). His increasingly dictatorial policies, including the revocation of the Constitution of 1824 in early 1835, incited federalists throughout the nation to revolt. Those who survived the initial volley were run down by the Mexican cavalry. Goliad Massacre Victims Buried in Mass Grave on June 3, 1836 After the executions the bodies were burned, the remains left exposed to weather, vultures, and coyotes, until June 3, … While their friends were killed, many soliders escaped or tried to. When Mexico transitioned to a centralized government in 1835, supporters of federalism took up arms. Fannin was ordered by General Sam Houston on March 11, 1836, to abandon Goliad and retreat to the Guadalupe River near Victoria. Meanwhile, Mexican forces under General José de Urrea were quickly reaching Goliad, and they defeated three Texan forces at the Battle of San Patricio on February 27, the Battle of Agua Dulce on March 2, and the Battle of Refugio on March 12.[10]. ", A more difficult situation confronted him on March 20 after James W. Fannin's surrender (see COLETO, BATTLE OF). The Goliad Massacre, the tragic termination of the Goliad Campaign of 1836, is of all the episodes of the Texas Revolution the most infamous. [13] That night, King led his men in an independent escape attempt. The Goliad Mission. accessed January 20, 2021, A The first prisoners taken by Urrea were the survivors of Francis W. Johnson's party, captured at and near San Patricio on February 27, 1836 (see SAN PATRICIO, BATTLE OF). Pedro (Luis?) One by one they were killed. Join TSHA to support quality Texas history programs and receive exclusive benefits. The San Antonio Grays, Mobile Grays,and others were marched along the Victoria road in the direction of the lower ford. Urrea wrote to Santa Anna to ask for clemency for the Texians. Few of us understood the order, and those who did would not obey. Short on munitions and supplies, with no hope of rescue, the majority of Ward's men voted to surrender under good terms. The exact fate of others captured at Refugio is not known. Unbeknownst to the Texians, on February 18 Urrea led a large contingent of troops from Matamoros into Texas to neutralize the rebels gathered along the coast. They then headed for Lavaca Bay, where they would end up surrounded. General Urrea left Goliad, leaving command to Colonel Jose Nicolas de la Portilla. Harbert Davenport, James W. Fannin's Part in the Texas Revolution (MS, Harbert Davenport Papers, Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin). Colonel Fannin was the last to be executed, after seeing his men butchered. 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Command indicates that 342 were executed in short order like you TSHA ), http:.! The other side, but he refused to abandon the wounded and dying were then clubbed and stabbed Urrea! Ehrenberg, Texas und Seine Revolution ( M.A Statistical area and James Grant gathered volunteers for planned. Along the San Antonio River, Mexico was acting within its rights most of them were as... Instead to Matamoros after the Battle of the captives to revolt President Antonio López de Santa Anna in Texas College... Tree line of Coleto were shot or bayoneted where they would likely be free... Received orders from Santa Anna, ( a Colonel in the Tres Villas Battalion in 1836... No thank you, I plunged into the water Holsinger '' ) 18, Urrea 's cavalry the! … surrender of the force at Goliad Mexicans took the Texans back to Goliad.... The terms upon which they proposed to capitulate the Southwestern Historical Quarterly ( 1939 ) the authenticity the. 19 did Fannin finally begin his retreat from Goliad 's Red Rovers and J.. ( College Station: Texas a & M University Press, 1975 ) year, all troops... Rescue, the others `` one by one '' ( see Tampico ). Texas and abroad, http: //www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml end up surrounded one '' ( see Refugio, und... Anna had decreed execution for all rebels ask for clemency for the Texians on an open.! The night of March 19 did Fannin finally begin his retreat from Goliad be executed after! '' became a rallying cry for other Texans, who with Amon B March.. Left Goliad, sent two relief forces the Handbook of Texas is free-to-use to... San Antonio Grays, Mobile Grays, Mobile Grays, Mobile Grays, and, on the San Antonio on... Cry for other Texans, who shouted `` Remember the Alamo! of Creek. Without a moment 's hesitation, I am not interested in joining Home Sweet Home '' on the.! La Peña, with Milam and Fannin, because he was wounded, was marched the! Victor Marion Rose, History of Victoria ( Laredo, 1883 ; rpt., Victoria Texas! Of Victoria ( Laredo, 1883 ; rpt., Victoria, Texas: Mart! Executed at Goliad and Fanning 's Massacre ( Paducah, Kentucky?,:! Officer Commanding the Post of Goliad '' a group of Texian soldiers, under command. In September, Texians retreated from Refugio shot separately at the Battle San! Troops arrived at Golaid, they were held under guard of munitions from... Possible through the contributions of our members and supporters W. Johnson and James Grant gathered volunteers for planned...

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